Android 12 adds killswitches for both the mic and camera. This new feature makes it possible for users to shut off access to hardware that could potentially lead to privacy issues. Say, for instance, you notice an app you don’t have open is using the mic or the camera. What do you do? You could quit that app, but maybe (if it’s malware or some other rogue app) that won’t prevent it from using the camera or the mic. With Android 12, you simply tap the killswitch for either the camera or the mic (or both) and then investigate why this happened in the first place.
Link: How to add the mic and camera killswitches in Android 12